Disk partitioning

Partition :  The total data storage space of a PC hard disk can be divided into at most four primary partitions, or alternatively three primary partitions and an Extended. These partitions are described by 16-byte entries that constitute the Partition Table, located in the master boot record.

Primary partition :The System Partition was required to be the first partition.More recent Windows operating systems (Win7, XP, etc.) can be located on any partition, but the boot files (bootmgr, ntldr, etc.) must be on a primary partition. However, other factors, such as a PC's BIOS may also impart specific requirements as to which partition must contain the primary OS.Maximum 4 primary partition we can do 

Extended partition :A hard disk may contain only one extended partition; the extended partition can be subdivided into multiple logical partitions 

Partition ID For Linux:

Linux Native Partition ext-2/3 = 83
Swap = 82
Extended = 5
Linux LVM = 8e
Raid auto detect = fd

Necessary Command for Partitioning:
# fdisk –l [To view all partition, Total HD Partition]
[root@localhost ~]# fdisk -l
Disk /dev/hda: 80.0 GB, 80060424192 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 9733 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
   Device Boot      Start         End       Blocks          Id   System
/dev/hda1   *           1           2764      22201798+   7   HPFS/NTFS
/dev/hda2            2765        9733      55978492+   5   Extended
/dev/hda5            2765        6602      30828703+   7   HPFS/NTFS
/dev/hda6            6603        8514      5358108+    83  Linux
/dev/hda7            8515        8603      714861        82   Linux swap / Solaris

# free –m [To view all RAM & Swap Partition]
[root@localhost ~]# free -m
             total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
Mem:     247        240          7          0              23             77
-/+ buffers/cache:139         108
Swap:    698          0           698

# df –h (d=disk,f=free,h=human redable format)
[root@localhost ~]# df -h
Filesystem            Size      Used      Avail      Use%     Mounted on
/dev/hda6               15G       7.1G     6.5G      53%             /
tmpfs                  124M         0        124M       0%         /dev/shm

#parted /dev/hda [To view all partition,With Total Free HD Partition]
[root@localhost ~]# parted /dev/hda
GNU Parted 1.8.1
Using /dev/hda
Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.
(parted) print free
Model: SAMSUNG SP0802N (ide)
Disk /dev/hda: 80.1GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos
Number           Start        End          Size           Type       File system     Flags
    1                32.3kB     22.7GB     22.7GB    primary       ntfs               boot
    2                22.7GB    80.1GB     57.3GB    extended
    5                22.7GB    54.3GB     31.6GB    logical        ntfs
    6                54.3GB    70.0GB     15.7GB    logical        ext3
    7               70.0GB     70.8GB     732MB    logical        linux-swap
                     70.8GB     80.1GB    9295MB                       Free Space

For Creat new partion:fdisk /dev/hda    (sda for sata hard disk)
[root@localhost ~]# fdisk /dev/hda
The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 9733.
There is nothing wrong with that, but this is larger than 1024,
and could in certain setups cause problems with:
1) software that runs at boot time (e.g., old versions of LILO)
2) booting and partitioning software from other OSs
   (e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK)
Command (m for help): m
Command action
   a   toggle a bootable flag
   b   edit bsd disklabel
   c   toggle the dos compatibility flag
   d   delete a partition
    l   list known partition types
   m   print this menu
   n   add a new partition
   o   create a new empty DOS partition table
   p   print the partition table
   q   quit without saving changes
   s   create a new empty Sun disklabel
   t   change a partition's system id
   u   change display/entry units
   v   verify the partition table
   w   write table to disk and exit
   x   extra functionality (experts only)
command (n for new partition): n [enter] 
 Command action
   l   logical (5 or over)
   p   primary partition (1-4)
l (press l for logical partition,p for primary partition,e for extended partition )
First cylinder (8604-9733, default 8604): Press Enter Button
Using default value 8604
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (8604-9733, default 9733):+200M(Partition size in MB)
Command (m for help): w(For Save)
The partition table has been altered!
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
WARNING: Re-reading the partition table failed with error 16: Device or resource busy.
The kernel still uses the old table.
The new table will be used at the next reboot.
Syncing disks.
[root@localhost ~]# partprobe /dev/hda

[root@localhost ~]# partprobe /dev/hda
[root@localhost ~]# partprobe /dev/hda 
[root@localhost ~]# mkfs.ext2 /dev/hda8(For change file system)
mke2fs 1.39 (29-May-2006)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=1024 (log=0)
Fragment size=1024 (log=0)
50200 inodes, 200780 blocks
10039 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=1
Maximum filesystem blocks=67371008
25 block groups
8192 blocks per group, 8192 fragments per group
2008 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
        8193, 24577, 40961, 57345, 73729

Writing inode tables: done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

This filesystem will be automatically checked every 21 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first.  Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.

[root@localhost ~]# parted /dev/hda
GNU Parted 1.8.1
Using /dev/hda
Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.
(parted) print free

Model: SAMSUNG SP0802N (ide)
Disk /dev/hda: 80.1GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos

Number  Start   End     Size    Type      File system  Flags
 1      32.3kB  22.7GB  22.7GB  primary   ntfs         boot
 2      22.7GB  80.1GB  57.3GB  extended
 5      22.7GB  54.3GB  31.6GB  logical   ntfs
 6      54.3GB  70.0GB  15.7GB  logical   ext3
 7      70.0GB  70.8GB  732MB   logical   linux-swap
 8      70.8GB  71.0GB  206MB   logical   ext2
        71.0GB  80.1GB  9089MB            Free Space

[root@localhost /]# mkdir /saifulpartion(For make a mount point directory)
[root@localhost /]# mount /dev/hda8 /saifulpartion(Mount hda8 to saifulpartition directory)
[root@localhost /]# vim /etc/fstab(For permanently mount we should give a antry in fastab)
LABEL=/                               /                        ext3          defaults             1 1
tmpfs                                 /dev/shm                tmpfs      defaults             0 0
devpts                              /dev/pts                  devpts     gid=5,mode=620  0 0
sysfs                                 /sys                         sysfs       defaults              0 0
proc                                 /proc                        proc        defaults              0 0
LABEL=SWAP-hda7    swap                       swap       defaults              0 0
/dev/hda8                      /saifulpartion            ext2         defaults        0 0

[root@localhost /]# mount -a
[root@localhost saifulpartion]# df -h
Filesystem             Size     Used       Avail     Use%     Mounted on
/dev/hda6              15G      7.1G      6.5G        53%             /
tmpfs                    124M      0         124M         0%          /dev/shm
/dev/hda8             190M    1.6M      179M      1%         /saifulpartion